Women with polycystic ovary syndrome at risk for diabetes

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A recent study conducted by the Faculty of Medicine at The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) revealed that Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at 4-fold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with those without the disorder, and also have younger onset of diabetes.

PCOS is a common gynaecological endocrine disorder affecting 6-12% of women in the reproductive age group. Patients usually present with menstrual irregularities or anovulation. Other clinical symptoms include infertility, and symptoms of androgen excess such as hirsutism and acne. They usually have the ultrasound appearance of multiple tiny cysts in the ovaries. The pathogenesis of the disorder has not been fully elucidated, but some suggest it may be due to the elevated androgens mediated through excess secretion of luteinising hormone or insulin resistance.

Dr. Lai Ping CHEUNG, Clinical Associate Professor (honorary) of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine at CUHK remarked, “Although PCOS is traditionally viewed as a reproductive disorder, there are increasing research findings and clinical evidence showing that it is associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders, such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and impaired glucose regulation. Patients thus have a higher risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the long run.”

CUHK study proves Chinese PCOS patients should pay attention to progressing diabetes risk

The research team from the Department of Medicine and Therapeutics and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology carried out a case-control study between 2016 and 2017 to investigate the increment of diabetes and cardiometabolic risks over a decade in Chinese women with PCOS. Participants received detailed clinical and metabolic evaluation, including a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. The follow-up evaluation consisted of 199 PCOS patients and 242 non-PCOS women as control.

Results showed that PCOS patients had become significantly more overweight, and an increased number of them emerged with hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and impaired glucose regulation after a decade, and one-fifth of them have diabetes. The research team calculated the incidence rate of T2DM for PCOS patients.

Dr. Noel Yat Hey NG, Post-doctoral Fellow, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine at CUHK, explained, “We found that the incidence rate of T2DM among women with PCOS was around 2.5 times higher compared with the local female population incidence rate, and had an earlier onset of 10 years, on average. With further analysis, we confirmed obesity, elevated triglyceride, and the presence of elevated androgens are associated with the progression of T2DM in PCOS. Under logistic regression analysis, we can conclude Chinese women with PCOS are at 4-fold higher risk of developing diabetes compared with those without the disorder.”

Professor Ronald Ching Wan MA urged, “Regular screening with an oral glucose tolerance test is warranted for women with PCOS. It is a standard test recommended by the World Health Organization and international guidelines for PCOS. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose are also recommended. Preventive measures such as lifestyle intervention involving weight reduction, dietary modification and increased physical activity may help reduce their long term health risks of developing diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.”

The study was supported by the Research Grants Council General Research Fund.

IMAGE SOURCE: Creative Commons

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